The mfecane was partly caused by changes in the Nguni groups that resulted in the development of the Zulu nation. Stronger leaders began to. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were. Mfecane: Mfecane, (Zulu: “The Crushing”) series of Zulu and other Nguni wars In South Africa itself the Mfecane caused immense suffering and devastated.

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He quickly made many enemies, not only with the Zulu king, but also with the BoersGriqua and Tswana. Or, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

Major, Royal Artillery Having learned Zulu tactics, the oc in turn descended upon more distant clans unfamiliar with the new order. This was the prelude of the Mfecanewhich spread from there. Most of the members of the Buthelezi ethnic group had left with Khoboyela and Ngqengelele. Large centralized states of tens of cauaes of people with standing armies of up to 40, men and autocratic leaders emerged where before there had been only small-scale political entities and no chief had had total power.

Contemporary Issues In Mission: Moreover, possibilities for population movement had become much more limited by the kfecane of the eighteenth century because land was in short supply. Kingdom of Mapungubwe c. InSoshangane invaded various Portuguese settlements, and was initially successful. Our newsletter keeps you up to date with all new papers in your subjects. Thank You for Your Contribution!

Mfecane | African history |

Zwide defeated cuases Mthethwa and executed Chief Dingiswayo. In summary, the causes of mfecane are; the need for land, population growth in Natal, the Boer trek, Shaka’s military and expansionist strategy. Mfecane refers to the period when Mzilikazia king of the Matebele, dominated the Transvaal. Portuguese Rule in Central Africa as liberal and oppressive. This greatly expanded the scale of regional warfare.

This was the genesis of the Great Trek which also had a very big impact on the people of Southern Africa but not on the scale of the Mfecane. The publishing website GRIN. Bantu-speaking farmers had reached the margins of arable land on the edge of the Kalahari Desert in the northwest and in the mountains on the southern border of the Highveld, and people settling in the area found their access to water more and more limited.

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Wars based on resources and land became a pattern as each state wanted enough land and resources for their agricultural and economic activities. No generic book summaries, but the specific content you need to ace your exams.

What had caused the Mfecane?

Also, Mosheshwe who emerged as a leader of the Sotho after the decline of the Zulu Kingdom was able build a very strong political kingdom that later developed into what is now Lesotho in Southern Africa. Earn money and win an iPhone X. Masekowho led another part of the Ngoni people, founded another state to the east of Zwangendaba’s kingdom. Moshoeshoe I gathered the mountain clans together in an alliance against the Zulus.

Dingiswayo was a mentor to King Shaka. The introduction of corn from the Americas through the Portuguese in Mozambique was one major reason for this trend. What factors contributed to dauses rise of the Zulu Nation. More courses of BA – Stellenbosch University. Rise of strong personalities who mobilized comrnunities and becameimportant figures in history of cast and central Africa i.

Help us improve this article! First of all, the population explosion in the area of Southern Africa among the Nguni people led to wars that opened the way for the Mfecane.

Shaka defeated Zwide and then he crafted his Zulu kingdom. The Mfecane also led to large tracts of land being uninhabited. With the fall of Dingiswayo, Shaka emerged from the ashes of the small Zulu chiefdom to build it into a larger political kingdom.

This alliance encroached on the routes used by the Ndwandwe alliance, who occupied the region in the north, near the Pongola River. She suggests these pressures created internal movements, as well as reactions against European activity, that drove the state formations and concomitant violence and displacement.

Many agree that Cobbing’s analysis offered several key breakthroughs and insights into the nature of early Zulu society. Moreover, Eldredge argues that Griqua and mrecane groups, rather than the British colonists, were primarily responsible for the slave raids coming from the Cape.


Reconstructive Debates in Southern African History. History of Central Africa, volume 1. They oppressed the Tsonga people living there, some of whom fled over the Lebombo Mountains into the Northern Transvaal. The agricultural surpluses and increased population enabled Shaka to raise a standing army of Zulus. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. Free Publication of your term paper, essay, interpretation, bachelor’s thesis, master’s thesis, dissertation or textbook – upload now!

Causes of the Mfecane

Both kingdoms became more centralized and militarized, their young men banded together in age regiments that became mfecnae basis for standing armies, and their kings became more autocratic as they fought for survival. Instead of using throwing spears, the Zulus used broad-bladed, stabbing spears known as iklwawhich were deadly in close combat.

Zwangendaba of the Jele or Gumbi clan son of Nonyanda ka Sguda Jele according to the information given by the original Gumbi clan of Kwazulu Natal and not kaHlatshwayo as stated by other researchers [ citation needed ]a commander of the Vauses army, fled north with Soshangane after his defeat in The Zulus also instituted a form of conscription, in which every man had to serve the king as soldier in special age regiments, known in English as impis.

The regimental system which involved recruiting young men for war and equipping them to teeth. The best study guides.

What had caused the Mfecane? – History Forum ~ WorldHistoria

By the end of the 18th century, the Zulus occupied much of their arable land. Emergency of strong and well developed states i.

The death toll has never been satisfactorily determined, but causea whole region became nearly depopulated. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.