Postoje predanja o tome da su neka crnogorska i neka albanska plemena narasla .. Dimitrije Tucović, Srbija i Arbanija, Jedan prilog kritici zavojevačke politike. File:Dimitrije From Wikimedia Category:Dimitrije Tucović Velika Srbija · Srpsko-albansko prijateljstvo · Srbija i Albanija (knjiga). Tucovic, Dimitrije. Srbija i Albanija. Beograd-Zagreb: Kultura, Udovicki, Jasminka. “Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Self-Determination in Former.
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The development of events in Turkey, particularly war with Italy and disorder in Old Serbia and Macedonia, had created a peculiar disposition in the Balkan states. Albanian insurrections accelerated the conclusion of the Balkan alliance. Realizing the impossibility of a peaceful solution to the Christian issue in Turkey, the allies decided to war. Owing to Tucogic diplomatic moves, Central Powers consented to the Balkan states handling the destiny of the Balkan Peninsula.
Estimating a certain victory for the Turkish army, Austria-Hungary calmly awaited war. The road leading to the realization of a historical mission – srbima liberation of compatriots under Turkish rule, opened in autumn, Beginning dimigrije October, the allies declared war to Turkey, the official reason being Turkey’s denial to pronounce new reforms with concessions equal to those given to the ethnic Albaniansthe supervision of which would have been entrusted to the Balkan states.
Shortly before the war, Serbia endeavored to win over the ethnic Albanians and isolate them from military operations. In a secret mission in Kosovo, two most distinguished intelligence officers Dragutin Dimitrijevic Apis and Bozin Simic aimed to come to an agreement with Isa Boljetinac and Idriz Sefer for ethnic Akbanija not to take part in the upcoming war.
At an assembly held in Skoplje on October 10, and subsequently in Pristina and Debarthe ethnic Albanians decided to defend their Ottoman fatherland in arms and use weapons obtained from Serbia against its army.
Commanding the third Serbian army for action slbanija Kosovo was General Bozidar Jankovic, who had previous contact with the ethnic Albanians, which might have influenced their decision.
A military announcement mentioned amiable disposition toward the ethnic Albanians providing they deserved it through proper conduct. Yet Austro-Hungarian agitators encouraged both Muslim and Catholic ethnic Albanians to move against the Serbian army, promising that troops of the Dual Monarchy are on their way from Bosnia to assist them.
Isa Boljetinac received 63, guns from the Turkish authorities to organize resistance toward the Serbian army. Despite Boljetinac’s strong agitation that “Islamism is in jeopardy”, and the need to defend “Turkish soil”, only 16, ethnic Albanians appeared at the frontier.
They were committed with the defense of Kosovo together with a Turkish corps. Well armed and equipped, the Serbian army advanced toward Kosovo in exaltation. The feeling that the “Serbian covenant thought” was coming to life with the liberation of Kosovo, bleeding five centuries under Turkish reign, had created a remarkably high morale for combat. Identical feelings were born by Montenegrin units advancing towards Pec and Djakovica.
Combats with the ethnic Albanians were severe only in the first skirmishes. The Serbian artillery easily scattered Albanian bashibazouk companies without encountering serious resistance. The entire third army attended albanlja formal liturgy at Dimtrije to mark the liberation of Kosovo.
Military authorities issued proclamations in Pristina and other towns for ethnic Albanians to quiet down and surrender arms. Realizing they would not be persecuted after surrendering their arms, ethnic Albanians in Drenica and the Pec region finally laid down their guns.
Serbian officers kept repeating that the Serbs were warring Turkey and not the ethnic Albanians.
In the newly liberated areas Serbia established civil rule and administration. Kosovo and Metohia became part of the Lab, Pristina and Prizren district.
Montenegro divided liberated Metohia into the Pec and Djakovica district.
The liberation of Old Serbia was not, however, the final goal of the Serbian armies. The political and economical hoop encircled around Serbia, held tight by Austria-Hungary since the. Kg Warand the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina induced Serbian diplomacy to resolve the issue of its political and economic independence by gaining free exit to the Adriatic Sea, a plan similar to one made by Ilija Garasanin.
The determination of the Serbian government to advance toward the Adriatic coast, to an ethnically Albanian area, was based on the evaluation that ethnic Albanians were “not a people, but tribes split up and mutually estranged, without a common language, alphabet and religion”. The government was supported by the court, by civil parties, the army and the widest public. While Montenegrin troops besieged Scutari, Serbian regiments from Old Serbia entered Albania and occupied its northern ports.
In the land of the Mirdits, Serbian troops were greeted cordially, whereas they were forced to penetrate Dukadjin toward the Adriatic Sea with arms. Reports of Serbia’s glorious victories were received with anxiety in Vienna. Austro-Hungarian diplomacy warned Serbia not to advance its army further from Prizren. To prevent Serbia’s exit to the sea, the Viennese government sent special emissaries to Albania to spread the idea of autonomy, and even called one of the most important Albanian leaders from Constantinople, Ismail Kemal.
Embarking an Austrian ship, Kemal set off to Valona to proclaim independence of Albania. Gathering feudal and tribal leaders from the southern regions to his side, on November 28,Kemal proclaimed the formation of an independent Albanian state. The provisional government in Valona was a toy in Vienna’s hands devoid of any influence with the people.
All documents, including the proclamation of independence, were written in the Turkish language; not one member of his cabinet knew how to write in the Albanian tongue. Kemal’s government sent messages to Serbian troops to withdraw from the territory of the new state. The Serbian army established civil rule north of the Durazzo-Elbasan-Struga line. The situation in Albania was on the verge of anarchy. The temporary government proclaimed an energetic severing of all ties with Turkey.
Subsequent to the Young Turk coup d’etat, the mid-Albanian Muslim populace was disposed to Albania remaining within the framework of the Ottoman Empire. Rumors spread among the people that the Young Turks were advancing with large armies to reoccupy Albania. To the north, the Catholic Mirdits negotiated with Montenegro and Serbia on the creation of an autonomous state.
The Mirdit mbret Bib Doda requested permission from the Serbian army for his fellow tribesmen to loot the Muslims. Within the Mata region, malcontents took down the Albanian flag and threatened to call the Serbian army.
Ismail Kemal’s government soon disintegrated. Disorder and mutual conflicts began within the first months following the proclamation of the independent Albanian state. Austria-Hungary considered the emergence of the Serbian army on the Adriatic Sea a serious injury to its interests.
Belligerent military circles in Vienna proposed to attack Serbia whose northern borders remained unguarded.
During December all tokens pointed to an upcoming Austro-Hungarian – Serbian war. After conferring with the Russian and Italian diplomacy, the Serbian government pronounced the following statement:.
We should not disapprove of the creation of autonomous Albania if Europe should agree to it. We only believe that Albania will not abide by peace necessary to both the Balkan allies and the whole of Europe.
File:Dimitrije – Wikimedia Commons
Our desire is to have a port on our territory – yet we leave this issue for the Great Powers to resolve, when they solve other matters that will unfold from peace.
The Austro-Hungarian incursion on Serbia was prevented by a conference of ambassadors of the Great Powers convoked in London toward the close ofat the initiative of the French and British diplomacy.
Representatives of the Balkan states began peace negotiations with the Ottoman Empire. The conference of ambassadors argued the issue of Serbia’s emergence at sea and the status of Albania, which would then enter into regulations of peace with Turkey. While Russia supported Serbian demands for Adriatic ports, Austria-Hungary’s intention at the conference was to struggle for a larger Albania.
Thus the very first day the conference opened, the ambassadors reached the following agreement: The exclusion of every Turkish element from the administration is understood. As compensation, it was given a free and neutral trade port on the Albanian coast, to which Serbian goods would arrive by railway secured by international gendarmes under European control. Peace in Europe was saved, but, as Poincares pointed out: Serbia demanded the borders to be drawn west of the Ohrid Lake and the Crni Drim river, so that Decani, Djakovica, Prizren, Debar and Ohrid would remain in its composition.
Greece demanded north Epirus where the Albanian populace lived admixed with the Greek one. Autonomous Albania was to have been constituted from the remaining areas. The Austro-Hungarian proposition, contrary to the Serbian one, suggested the creation of Great Albania.
It left Struga, Ohrid and Debar to Bulgaria if it were to make any claims. Italy supported Montenegrin claims but acutely opposed Greek ones. Russia and France maintained a medial solution by which Albania’s frontier toward Serbia should stretch along the watershed of the Beli and the Crni Drim rivers to Ohrid.
The Albanian delegation demanded the formation of “ethnical” Albania, inclusive of the towns Pec, Mitrovica, Pristina, Skoplje and Bitolj. The standpoint of the Serbian delegation was most wholly revealed by the aide-memoir submitted to the ambassador conference on January 8.
It explicitly stated that Serbia was not opposed to the formation of autonomous Albania, but that its whole centuries-long struggle for national survival under Turkish rule, and subsequently for state independence from untilwould prove to have been senseless if those regions with admixed Serbian-Albanian populaces, where forceful Islamization, Albanization and the routing of Serbian inhabitants had been urged on for centuries, were to belong to Albania.
Supporting its attitudes with historical, ethnographic, cultural and ethical rights, the Serbian delegation underscored that Kosovo and Metohia, where the towns Pec, Decani and Djakovica lay, were since time immemorial the sacred land of the Serbs, and that under no condition would any Montenegrin nor Serbian government consent to their belonging to someone else.
The Serbian government was adamant in its defense of Kosovo, Metohia and west Macedonia. The entrance of either of these regions into autonomous Albania would create a new seedbed of conflicts through which Austria-Hungary would exert pressure upon Serbia. Stojan Novakovic, the first delegate at the conference of ambassadors, believed that by “demanding Prizren, Djakovica, Pec for Albania, Austria-Hungary desired to renew the barrier between Serbia and Montenegro, between Serbia and the sea”.
Serbia was forced to withdraw its troops from the Adriatic coast. Austria-Hungary gave in to Russia’s demands, so Debar and Djakovica remained part of Serbia, while its demand to include Scutari in the new Albanian state was accepted, though the town was still besieged by Montenegrin and Serbian troops. The final agreement was reached on April 10,while the structure of Albania continued to be discussed in the months to follow.
At the end of July, the Austro-Hungarian – Italian proposition was accepted by which Albania was to become a sovereign state with a hereditary prince. An International Control Committee was formed whose duty was to organize life in the country with the aid of Dutch officers. As the hereditary Albanian prince, among numerous candidates, an Austro-Hungarian was chosen, German Prince Wilhelm von Wied, cousin of the Romanian queen, interpreted in Belgrade as another attempt of Austria-Hungary to close the hoop around Serbia by way of Albania, Bulgaria and Romania.
Bogdanovic, Knjiga o Kosovu, Ep. Jovanovic, Pukovnik Apis, Beogradpp. MikicAlbanci i Srbija u balkanskim ratovimaIstorijski glasnik,p. Stankovic, Nikola Pasic i stvaranje balkanske drzave, M.
Mikic, Albanci i Srbija ssrbija balkanskim ratovima, p. Concerned only for their narrow party and political interests, they used the entrance of the Serbian army into Albania to settle their accounts with the government policy and civil parties cf.
Tucovic, Srbija i Albanija, Beograd Balugdzic, Kad se stvarala Albanija, Srpski knjizevni glasnik, 52pp. The situation in Albania and the border area toward Serbia was marked by anarchy, disorders and conflicts during and the first half of The commander of Scutari, Essad Pasha Toptani, surrendered the town to the Montenegrins on April 23,; in return, he was enabled to advance south with his army and military equipment and take part in the struggle for power.
Already three mutually conflicting governments existed in Albania.