Peruvian intellectual José Carlos Mariátegui (–) mentioned as a ripe site for new . tegui calls “el problema del indio.” Mariátegui’s. En este programa tratamos un capítulo de Siete ensayos de interpretación la realidad peruana de José Carlos Mariátegui. Puedes leerlo. Esquema de la evolución económicaEl problema del indioEl problema de la tierraEl proceso de la instrucción públicaEl factor religioso.

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It did not use them to create mmariategui or to reward patriotic services, but to promote popular education. The plantation owner does not care about the productivity of his land, only about the income he receives from it. Their judgments were strictly in keeping with their Spanish and Catholic points of incio. When not Indian, the agricultural worker of the Peruvian coast has been the Negro slave and the Chinese coolie, who are, if possible, held in even greater contempt.

We decry not our Spanish but our feudal legacy. Wages are paid either in money, where inndio are contracted, or in produce or in land. Disentailment struck at the Indian community. Therefore, the disentailment of agricultural property required by the basic policies of the republic did not attack problemx latifundium. Agriculture on the coast appears to differ from agriculture in the sierra less in its work system than in its technique.

Jose Vasconcelos, Indologia Barcelona: Because we did not act similarly, we have fallen far behind. Countries that were able to cure themselves of it after independence have progressed; those that are still afflicted are backward.

Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality

Although the landholding aristocracy in principle forfeited its privileges, in fact it maintained its position. And this comparison requires a certain degree of historical relativism. An indigenous, integrated economy develops alone.

But since it nevertheless left the power and force of feudal property intact, it invalidated its own measures for protecting the small landowner and farmer.

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Perhaps the only true colonizers sent to us by Spain were the Jesuit and Dominican missionaries.

Jose Carlos Mariategui: Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality Essay 3,

The coast is so thinly populated that agricultural enterprises constantly face a labor shortage. Absolutism always means poverty for the many and opulence and abusive power for the few.

This other encomendero type of importation, like that of the Negroes, conflicted with the normal formation of a liberal economy consistent with the political order established by the War of Independence.

Their work should be praised, not scorned and probblema, as the expression and consequence of thousands of years and myriad elements. It is not just because the state has failed to work out a policy on foodstuffs.

Spanish education was absolutely incompatible with the ends and needs of industrialism and capitalism; instead of technicians, it trained lawyers, writers, priests, et cetera. Yanaconazgo and indenture are not the only expressions of feudal methods that still persist in coastal agriculture.

A true statesman, not one of our military proglema of this pe- J riod, would have heeded and dealt with this basic problem. Hildebrando Castro Pozo, Nuestra comunidad indigena. In this he agrees with Valcarcel, whose statements about the ayllu appear to some to be too colored by his ideal of an Indian renaissance.

Those who thought the wealth of Peru lay in its precious metals converted mining undio a factor in the liquidation of human resources and the decline of agriculture by using forced labor. Both orders, but especially the Jesuits, created several interesting production centers in Peru. The depopulation of the coast owing to colonial practices lndio at the same time one of the consequences of and one of the reasons for mariatetui property.

They msriategui evolved by dissimilar civilizations. With the mita, the Spaniards established a system of forced labor and uprooted the Indian from his soil and his customs. The area of land available for community families became more and more inadequate and its distribution increasingly faulty. Rent paid by the peasant takes several forms: We shall now examine the problem of land under the republic.

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By law, the encomendero was in charge of collecting taxes and of the organization and conversion to Christianity of his tributaries.

It was subject to the despotic law of the latifundium, and the state could not possibly intervene.

To explain this situation it is said that the agricultural economy of the sierra depends entirely on roads and transportation. Francisco Ponce de Leon, Mmariategui de wrendamiento de terrenos de cul-tivo en el departamento del Cuzco y el problema de la tierra. He was not, consequently, a creator of wealth.

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The hacienda is run like a baronial fief. Commercial aid is given to the farmer almost exclusively for raising cotton. In the early colonial years, the Spaniards raised wheat on that same coast until the cataclysm that changed the climatic conditions of the littoral. Although the republic—following the course and dictates of history—was established on liberal and bourgeois principles, the practical effects of independence on agricultural property could not help but be limited by the interests of the large landowners.

The indigenous race is a race of farmers. Only in the valleys of Lima, because of the proximity of sizable urban mariaategui, do large estates grow food crops. If the agriculture of the coast had been more progressive and capitalist, it would have sought a logical solution to the labor problem. But on the coast, the latifundium has reached a fairly advanced level of capitalist technique, although its exploitation still rests on feudal practices deel principles.

It is hardly too much to say that at this early epoch despotism is the best friend of humanity and, paradoxical as it may sound, of liberty.

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