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System of protected areas. According to Article VIII of the Antarctic Treaty, the designated observers, scientific personnel, and their accompanying personnel members are subject to the jurisdiction of the Contracting Party of which they are nationals, in terms of the actions and omissions that take place while they are in Antarctica with the purpose of fulfilling their duties.

Before beginning with the development of this paper, it is pertinent to clarify that given dwl complexity of the Antarctic System and the Antarctic Treaty as its cornerstone this paper will concentrate on the Antarctic Treaty since what is advocated for in said treaty is applicable to the Antarctic System with respect to the material that will be visited below.

This mechanism of National Jurisdiction and Immediate Consultations are backed by the Consultative Meetings, which will be dealt with further along, but some practical cases that have been presented have revealed serious deficiencies, such as those in the following examples: This postulate, which demands sovereignty as a basic and fundamental element in order for the state to claim territory, is a fundamental principle for the order of the international system in such a way jelkinek it is recognized as one of the dogmas of international law 8 and has been set as precedent in judicial cases such as that of the Island of Palmas.

Consultative and Non-Consultative Parties. However, there are arguments to sustain, rstado without difficulties, that the above mentioned treaty, and mainly the principle of peaceful usage of the Antarctic territory contained in it, has generated a custom in international public law as a general practice and, therefore, with opinio juris is a source of valid international law and enforceable against third state parties that are not part of the Antarctic Treaty.

According to the conviction of the day, decisions in international material should be collective and concerted instead of being made individually and based on livro force. Van der Essen, Alfred In line with the same logic as the principle of abstaining from the use of power, Article XI of the Antarctic Treaty regulates the mechanisms that should operate in case of controversy, with which it seeks to maintain the principle that Antarctica is only for peaceful purposes and where harmony should prevail.

Brilmayer and Tesfalidet ; Dodge The proposed answer to this question consists in confirming that the evolution of the so-called “Question of Antarctica” has libgo a custom in international law in such a way that the principles of the Antarctic Treaty are enforceable against third party States that are not party to this treaty. International Law for Antarctica.

We consider that the constant and uniform reiteration that the resolutions of the General Assembly of the UN make on the peaceful usage of the Antarctic territory, such as the recognition of the Antarctic Treaty and the system coming out of it, is convincing proof of the obligatory character that should be maintained in the international arena with respect to Antarctica.


After carrying out an analysis, we consider that in the given case that a geneeral party state not party to the Antarctic Treaty is unaware of the principle of peaceful usage of Antarctica, it is possible to argue that this principle has constituted custom in international law and, therefore, valid against states that eventually denounce the Antarctic Treaty or that do not take part in it, position in which the Antarctic territory will be protected against a non-peaceful usage.

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In addition to this, there was pressure from countries, such as India, that took the Antarctic problem to the General Assembly of the United Nations 26 and the very own pressures from the intensification of the Cold War.

Observes with worry that the apartheid regime in South Africa continues to maintain its condition as Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty; 2. In order to demonstrate the previous hypothesis, this paper will first show how the decision to sign the Antarctic Treaty was arrived at and the legal rights protected by it. One example is that of the NGO Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition ASOC that, as indicated in its name, is a coalition of more than members whose objective is ” to assure that the environmental and scientific assets without comparison in the Antarctic region are recognized, respected, and protected for all those that work there or visit ” In the 50s of the last century, there were various incidents that showed the growing tension surrounding the Question of Antarctica.

Provide freedom for scientific research. Prevent the use of Antarctica for military purposes. See Howkins p. Therefore, the Committee on the Formation of Customary Law of the International Law Association 71 gives a fundamental importance to the resolutions of the General Assembly for the formation of international custom as there is a large amount of political content in these UN resolutions.

In order to proceed in putting forward the argumentation, according to which the principles of the Antarctic Treaty have been established as custom of international law, we will first deal with what makes up the custom of international law and, subsequently, the policy between custom and treaty will be analyzed. Taking shelter in the doctrinal positions exposed on the formation of custom starting with the resolutions of the General Assembly of the UN and the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, it is necessary to analyze what has been the treatment of the so-called “Question of Antarctica” in the General Assembly of the United Nations.


Based on the above, this effect could not be useful teoriq arguing that the Antarctic Treaty had created international custom. A proposal for dealing with jurisdictional uncertainty and lack of effective enforcement”, Emory International Law Review Vol.

On the specifics, see. Durham University, Durham, UK: Thirdly, it will reflect on the egneral in favor of asserting that the Antarctic Treaty has generated custom in international public law for third party states.


All expeditions to Antarctica and within Antarctica in which their ships or nationals participate and all expeditions to Antarctica that are organized or begin in their territory. Neither the United States military authorities nor the federal government pressed charges against these individuals We consider it difficult for the Antarctic Treaty to fit into this type of effect given that previous to the formation of the treaty no custom existed with respect to the Antarctic territory, but rather the contrary for there had been a constant dispute and a number of authors that kept world peace and security at unease, which was succinctly related when dealing with the formation of the Antarctic Treaty.

Article VII of the Antarctic Treaty establishes this mechanism with ” the purpose of promoting the objectives and assuring the use of the regulations ” in the treaty and consists in the states that are able to participate in the Consultative Meetings contemplated in Article IX of the treaty having the right to designate observers to carry out inspections.

Marks died of natural causes, but when the body arrived in New Zealand and was examined by a forensic doctor it was determined that Marks had a high dose of methanol in his system We consider that the states parties to the Antarctic Treaty and the Antarctic System should start a strong diplomatic campaign with the purpose of getting a large number of states to become parties to the treaty, given that this is an open treaty according to its Article XIII stating that anyone can join.

At this time the Cold War was a fact, and the rivalry between the Soviet block and the United States was more than obvious since when George F.

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Gaddis, John Lewis Suspension of territorial claims, prohibition from making new claims or extending those made while the A. However, in the eventuality that a state not party to the Antarctic Treaty infringes jellinnek the principles contained in it, the states parties to it would be those to employ, using a controversy resolution mechanism of their choice, the international custom constituted by the Antarctic Treaty.

Additionally, it establishes a regime for specific protection with respect to certain Antarctic flora and fauna “Protected Species” and it establishes special zones in the Antarctic territory such as in the case of the “Especially Protected Zones” and “Sites of Special Scientific Interest”. Establish a collective, organized administration on behalf of the directly involved states.

In the case of controversy over exercising jurisdiction, a mechanism of Immediate Consultation is sustained with the objective of reaching a mutually acceptable solution. Reprint, Teiria, Editorial Tecnos. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica shall be asserted while the present Treaty is ljbro force” With the development of faster communication channels, the area will soon hold a key position of importance in the well-being and progress of nations.