participei de vários projetos para editora Moderna, Ática, Saraiva, Spione e Ftd Biologia, Ciências, Geografia, História e ilustrações infantis para livro. Amabis & Martho (), for instance, clearly presents the idea of evolution as an .. AMABIS, J. M.; MARTHO, G. R. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna (2nd ed.). P. A abordagem da relatividade restrita em livros didáticos do ensino médio. AMABIS, J.M.; MARTHO, G.R. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. livro/58ra/JNIC/RESUMOS/resumo_html>.

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Los conceptos estruturales en el aprendizaje por investigacion. We have already analyzed 8 from a total sample of 20 books. Environmental Causes in Ontogeny.

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Nevertheless, when assuming such an approach, we should not underestimate the risks of losing from sight the need for an understanding not only of the molecular and cellular components of living systems, but also of the organizational principles by means of which the very systems which we classify as living can emerge from those components. It is a vast, modern and intrepid study in which we seek to understand the most intimate nature of each phenomenon that takes place inside a cell, in a fascinating investigation to explain each normal or abnormal process of the organism, justifying the nature of diseases, trying to correct or avoid them, and understanding life itself better.

The treatment of this problem revolves around the possibilities of an origin by divine creation, or chemical evolution, or in some extraterrestrial place. The Ontogeny of Information 2nd Ed. One book based its approach to the definition of life on the biological meaning of death, as the inevitable antithesis of life Figure 2. The definition of life proposed explicitly situates the life concept in a biological paradigm, trying to give this concept a meaning by connecting it with other concepts in that paradigm.

Although most books do not include a chapter or section on the concept of life, it is possible to draw some general ideas about this issue from the texts, through an analysis of how the authors think of biology, the making of science, the scope of the field, the organization of the contents, etc. Metaphors and the role of genes in development. At last, all living beings are subjected to death.


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This approach can be verified in the fragmentary way the textbooks deal with the levels of complexity, making it difficult to understand, for instance, that the relations of living beings to each other and to their environment depend on their internal organization.

The demand for such an integrated luvro can be thought of as following from an understanding of the nature of modrna, a fundamental feature in any discussion about biology teaching.

Remember me on this computer. The problem lies in the disproportionate emphasis on the micro-structure of biological systems, usually in an approach tending to isolate molecular and cellular structures from the organismic and environmental contexts.

It is desirable, then, to address this problem in a non-essentialist manner, inasmuch as this is compatible with population thinking. The definition of life proposed includes a set of properties chosen under the light of noderna implicit theoretical paradigmatic justification, forming a coherent set of interrelated properties.

Nonetheless, a mere discussion of living beings in supposedly higher and higher levels of complexity cf. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna 2nd ed. Click here to sign up. The genetic program metaphor, much criticized in the literature e.

We emphasized how amabie search for similar features in biological processes and common patterns in the diversity fundanentos living beings, which is an inevitable part of any attempt to define life, makes a more integrated approach to biological knowledge possible. It is not that there would be any problem in searching for a unity in the diversity of life. Amais in Biosciences Organicismo, emergentismo e ensino de biologia, in: Rather, it is possible to explain the characteristic coexistence of that list of symptoms of life on the grounds of some set of causes.

This passage suggests that life will be better and better understood as our inquiry delves more and more into the micro- structural levels of living beings. The analysis of the textbooks was performed by applying a standard protocol, in order to guarantee a standardized appraisal of how the textbooks dealt with the problem of defining life and life concepts Figure 1.



After concluding that, in favorable conditions, amoebae never die, he raises the question: What is the paradigm in which the textbook includes, implicitly or explicitly, fundamentoz life definition if there is any?

What fundameentos the Books present a definition of life? Another reductionist tendency is found in the way the phenomenon of life and the molecular or biochemical level are presented as closely related, while other views on life are relegated to a less important rank.

Autopoietic systems, replicators, and the search for a meaningful biologic definition of life. And, finally, we have in this passage a very clear example of an essentialist approach to a characterization of living beings. From the 8 books analyzed, 5 presented a definition of life.

Textbooks that characterized living beings by means of a general description of taxonomic groups highlighting the attributes of each group. As to the nature of the life definition s presented if there is any: The nature of life, in: It fujdamentos also interesting to examine the difficulties that follow from the classification of viruses as living beings.

The textbook sections about the origins of life contain important issues concerning life concepts. Among several misunderstandings and difficulties resulting biklogia this metaphor, we have the problem that it emphasizes a purely informational conception of life.

An emphasis on the description of morphological and anatomical features characterizing groups of plants and animals reinforced the search for lists of essential properties. We decided then to make an analysis of Brazilian high-school biology textbooks, as textbooks represent, in Brazil, the major way of transposing contents from scientific to school knowledge Razera et al.

Emmechefor instance, does not consider viruses as borderline cases, but as pathological forms of life, a kind of ultimate parasites, as they presuppose in the functional and evolutionary sense the existence of living cells. The Philosophy of Artificial Life.