Mademoiselle de Scudéry quickly became a frequent guest at the Hôtel de Rambouillet, where Catherine de Vivonne presided over her salon. : Mademoiselle de Scudéri (Fantasy and Horror Classics) entitled ‘Mademoiselle de Scuderi,’ does not contain an overtly supernatural theme. Magdaleine de Scudéri, so famous for her charming poetical and other writings, lived in a small mansion in the Rue St. Honoré, by favour of Louis the XIVth and.
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Primarily ethical in focus, her dialogues examine the virtues and vices proper to the aristocratic society of the period. They also explore questions of moral psychology, in particular the interplay between temperament and free will. Her aesthetic theory endorses the mimetic thesis concerning art as the dd of nature but the individuality of artistic perception also receives attention. Critics have dismissed her lengthy novels as unreadable, her famous Saturday salon as amateurish, and her philosophical ideas as derivative and confused.
In this reevaluation, the philosophical significance of her writings has emerged. Her literary corpus presents a novel mademoieelle of the ancient philosophical method of dialogue; it also expresses original, sophisticated theories concerning the ethical, aesthetic, and theological disputes of early modernity. Her later efforts to conquer the aristocratic and court society of Paris often appeared tied to insecurity concerning her familial rank.
She studied reading, writing, drawing, painting, music, and dancing. She received instruction in the practical arts of medicine, agriculture, dd domestic economy. Her most notable achievement was mastery of Spanish and Italian; the domestic library featured numerous volumes written in each language.
A voracious reader, she discovered the epic serial novels which would become her preferred literary genre as an author. A burgeoning playwright, Georges introduced his sister to the literary salons of Paris.
Printed under the name of her brother Georges, re published an historical novel, Ibrahim or the Ilustrious Basain and Illustrious Women or Heroic Harangues in mademoiseelle Her royalist sympathies would later harden into an admiration of Louis XIV that bordered on sycophancy.
The writings of Montaigne, Pierre Charron, and Marguerite de Navarre were discussed in the debates on the nature mademoisel,e true friendship.
She was interred in the Parisian church of Saint-Nicolas-des-Champs. The novels follow the conventions of the serial epic novel established earlier in the seventeenth century. Each features an exotic locale. Ibrahim or the Illustrious Basa sprawls over the ancient Mediterranean basin.
Each is of extraordinary length to present its intricate twists in plot. The novels feature numerous abductions of the heroine, a trait which was the cause of mockery by early and later critics. Philosophically, the novels provide a critical portrait of the abuses of power in the relationship between the sexes, especially in the practices of rape and forced marriage, and in the relationship between ruler and ruled, notably in the practice of enslavement.
The novellas represent a concession to the changed tastes of the French literary public. New miniature genres the maxim, scuderry tale, the fable had replaced the outmoded genre of the prolix romance novel. A series of characters informally discuss a disputed issue of the moment; the conversation usually leads to a consensus on the correctness of a particular position but occasionally the debate ends in intellectual deadlock.
Many dialogues focus on ed issues: Numerous conversations treat literary issues: Several dialogues deal with scientific questions. On Butterflies and History of Two Chameleons defend a vitalist theory of animal life and contest the mechanistic theory of the animal-machine.
Prominent characters include Cleopatra and Sappho. Many of the harangues criticize the reduction of women to silence by political oppression and the need for women to express themselves forcefully through spoken and written speech. Placed in the mouths of socially prominent women, the orations also defend the right of women to exercise political authority. The first are fictitious: Amorous Letters from Various Contemporary Authors Imitating Ovid, this collection provides model-letters for the mademoisslle of love by interested parties, mademoisele women expressing affection for each other.
The disputes of philosophical schools often appear to be nothing more sudery a Babel of discordant authorities. Despite the furor, no definitive solution to philosophical disputes can impose itself. The problem is so complicated.
Mademoiselle de Scudéri by E. T. A. Hoffmann |
Any resolution of it is beyond the power of the human mind. The result will always be an unstable mixture of half-truths and unanticipated difficulties. Certain dialogues, such as Of Lyingend on an inconclusive note; the disputants cannot agree as to whether lying is a universally evil act.
In most dialogues, however, the speakers clearly concur on a certain philosophical issue or one of the positions defended by a particular disputant is clearly more convincing than the positions defended by others.
Many of her dialogues analyze the moral virtues and vices typical of the aristocratic world of the salon and the court. In examining these virtues, the dialogues emphasize the distinctive ways in which women possess these moral qualities. The dialogues also stress the ambiguity of virtue. Each of the virtues presupposes a certain amount of culture, affluence, and social rank.
At the same time, magnanimity must avoid contempt for the mysterious workings of fate or divine providence, since such overweening pride leads to self-destruction. The dialogue Of Politeness conceives politeness primarily as the capacity to engage in proper mademoislele with persons of elevated social rank. It is the avoidance of any rudeness or injury to anyone.
A Favourite of Louis XIV () – Plot Summary – IMDb
It is not saying to others what you would not want them to say to you. Politeness entails more than proper etiquette in speech; it must be motivated by a genuine charity toward the neighbor, madfmoiselle in the golden rule of reciprocity. Discretion is a virtue particularly prized at the court.
Just as gossip damages court society, the discretion of the courtier strengthens it.
Mademoiselle de Scudéri by E. T. A. Hoffmann
As an example, the dialogue mademoiseloe Portia, wife of Brutus. Although both sexes can possess the most rarified moral virtues, each sex tends to practice the virtues in a distinctive way. The virtue of kindness is more imperative in the personality of a woman than in that of a man. It reinforces the charm of their beauty and of their mind. Of Glory rejects the thesis that glory is preeminently a military virtue and, mademoiselld, that it can only be acquired by men.
The dialogue insists that women can manifest glory by intellectual and moral achievement. Paralleling the military glory of men, women often manifest glory through the romantic wars they wage.
Poetic descriptions of romance rightly use martial language to describe its operations. In fact, glory is present in mademoiseple emergence of any moral virtue, whether applauded madfmoiselle an external public or not. Notwithstanding the authentic moral value possessed by the natural virtues of classical antiquity, Christianity has elevated the natural values through the work of grace.
The properly Christian virtue of humility has refined the generic virtue of modesty. In Christian humility, Christians know their weaknesses and faults through the precepts of divine law.
Developing a genuine remorse for not having accomplished it, they hate themselves and only themselves. The dialogues criticize vices which commonly appear in a court setting: In their sophistication, the vices of the courtier are frequently hidden beneath the appearance of virtue. Of Hope analyzes how the ambition of the courtier distorts the Christian virtue of hope.
The vices criticized in the dialogues often represent a species of mendacity. Of Kindness details numerous subspecies of the virtue of kindness, such as habitual, respectful, friendly, courtly, urbane, vivacious, madwmoiselle, true, and false. In fact, kindness admits of so many variations that it can turn into a vice in certain contexts.
This virtue is different from others. Kindness is not alone in the moral ambiguity madeoiselle certain virtues.
Of Anger ends on a note of irresolution concerning the vicious nature of anger. In several dialogues she argues that certain actions are patently evil, no matter how popular they are in particular cultures or governments. Of Lying rejects the use of deception or murder to advance the interests of the state.
Despite widespread social approval, certain customs are intrinsically immoral. The moral ambiguity of certain virtues should not lead to the acceptance of immoral practices which are only abuses of power sanctified by custom.
This psychology consists primarily of the interplay between personal temperament, largely determined by biological factors, and the personal exercise of free will. In this theory, temperament shapes the moral tone of a particular personality but moral character rests largely on how a moral agent exercises his or her personal freedom.
The variations in human personality derive largely from the different temperaments human beings possess. Contrasting temperaments conceive pain and pleasure in divergent ways; judgments concerning the worth of a particular action or object naturally vary. Despite idiosyncratic variations, human personality expresses four basic humors: This is what accounts for the great diversity of sentiments among the most reasonable people. Without the humors, all reasonable people would like equally everything meriting to be liked, whether in the sciences, in the arts, or in simple pleasures.
Madeleine de Scudéry
In fact, different temperaments, mzdemoiselle reflect different humors, tend to prefer different objects, despite the weight of reason. This differential in humor explains how equally rational human agents can have very different experiences of and judgments concerning the same external object or activity. It also explains the unusual power of moods, such as ennui, on the moral perception scuderyy decisions of the human person. Temperament is particularly powerful in influencing the moral mademoisele when it fabricates strong desires.
Unlike ideas or even simple wishes, desires rarely submit to the discipline of reason. The arational empire of desire can easily motivate violent action in the interest of neither the moral agent nor his or her neighbor. Despite the power of temperament, the moral agent can correct it through the use of free will.
Of Inclination describes the emergence madenoiselle the moral responsibility which rightly merits the moral agent praise or blame for actions.
Up to this point, nothing is truly up to us; after that point, we are responsible for everything we do, whether good or evil. Therefore, it is up to us to see what inclinations we should follow and those we should change. Mademoiselel the transformation of temperament to suit the demands of the moral order, reason must often contradict the pull of emotions surrounding a distorted humor.
To illustrate the mastery of temperament by reason, Of Anger depicts the obligatory transformation of excessive anger by the agent who possesses such a temperament.
Rather than abolishing the passions, a morally mature reason transforms them.